Style Requirements

The following is required of all writing submitted to Evental Aesthetics. Submissions that do not meet these requirements will not be considered for publication or sent for peer review.

Please follow the guidelines below. Further down the page we’ve also compiled a comprehensive list of



  • All submissions must be in English. Authors should use American spelling and grammar.  Our arbiters are The Chicago Manual of Style and Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. If more than one spelling is given or more than one form of the plural, use the first form listed.
  • EA considers the singular “they” grammatical and felicitous.
  • The standard indent is one-half inch or five spaces. Apply an indent to each new paragraph, hanging indents in references, and block quotes.
  • Leave a margin of at least one inch on all four edges of the page.
  • Use footnotes rather than endnotes.
  • Use a legible typeface no smaller than 12pts.
  • The author’s name should not appear anywhere in the submission document.
  • Submit in .doc, .docx, or .odt format, not .pdf or .tex.


  • Quotation marks
    • Use double quotation marks (“ ”) except for quotations within quotations, which should use single marks (‘ ’).
    • All punctuation should go inside quotation marks, except for colons and semicolons.
  • Dashes
    • When using a dash to set off nested clauses or parenthetical statements, use an em-dash (—), not set apart by spaces.
  • Ellipses
    • Do not bracket ellipses inside quotations.  When using ellipses in the middle of a sentence, a space should appear between ellipsis mark and the following letters. If words are omitted at the end of a sentence, it is not necessary to indicate the omission with ellipses. Similarly, when words at the beginning of a quoted sentence are omitted, do not use ellipses when that fragment can fit into the flow of your text.
  • Brackets
    • Use square brackets to indicate alterations to quotations. When a quotation contains a capital letter that you rewrite as a lowercase letter (or vice versa), surround the rewritten letter with square brackets.
  • Italics
    • Please use italics, not underlining or bold, for emphasis.  If a quoted passage contains italics, the in-line citation reference should specify “emphasis added” if you have added the italics, or “emphasis in original” if the italics appear in the original, quoted text.
  • Period Spacing
    • Use only one space after periods, colons, and semicolons.
  • Number ranges
    • Please use en-dashes () for number ranges, i.e., (Smith 1997, 15–17) or 2009–2016, not (Smith 1997, 15-17) or 2009-2016.


Evental Aesthetics follows The Chicago Manual of Style’s second system of source citation, the author-date references system (“inline text citation”). Please see our comprehensive list of special cases and examples in the sections below for further details, or refer to chapters 14 and 15 of the Manual.

Sources are to be cited in the text in parentheses, in the order (LastName YearOfPublication), or (LastName YearOfPublication, PageNumber) where appropriate. Citations should fit smoothly into the sentence containing them. As such, some minor variations on this system are occasionally permissible. For instance, it will sometimes be appropriate to put only the year and page range (i.e., not the author) in parentheses. So, for instance:

“Technical terms are roughly as common in Analytic philosophy as in science (Hobbs 2014, 34).”


“Hobbs (2014, 34) argues that technical terms are roughly as common in Analytic philosophy as in science.”

When a source is cited several times in close succession, subsequent citations need only include the page number in parentheses.

Where relevant and feasible, both the original publication date of a source and the consulted edition should be cited. The original date should be in square brackets. Only the consulted edition needs complete bibliographic information.

Text citation:

(Adorno [1963] 1994)

Reference list entry:

Adorno, Theodor W. (1963) 1994. Hegel: Three Studies. Translated by Shierry Weber Nicholson. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Full details of the sources cited in the main body of the text are then to be included in a reference list to be titled “References” following the main body of the text. In this list, the year of publication follows immediately the author name as per below. Entries should be listed alphabetically by author surname and chronologically for each author. Several publications by the same author from the same year should be listed in alphabetical order of the title (excluding articles), and the year of publication should be followed, in both the in-text citation and the reference list, by a, b, etc. To avoid repeating the author name several times, please replace the author name in the second to last entries with a 3-em-dash (———) (or three em-dashes) as per below.

Text citation:

(Lesher 2010a, 175; 2010b)

Reference list entry:

Lesher, J. H. 2010a. “The Meaning of ‘Saphêneia’ in Plato’s Divided Line,” in Plato’s Republic: A Reader’s Guide, edited by Mark L. McPherran, 171–87. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

⸻. 2010b. “Saphêneia in Aristotle: ‘Clarity,’ ‘Precision,’ and ‘Knowledge.’Apeiron 43: 143–56.

The list of references should be limited to and inclusive of all those publications actually cited in the text.

Texts with established citation practices

Some texts, such as Plato’s corpus, the Bible, and Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, have nonce but established citation practices. These texts should be cited in accordance with these practices.


For Kant, sensibility is our passive or receptive capacity to be affected by objects that are independent of us (2:392, A51/B75).

This sort of matter, the form-dependent matter, Aristotle regards as proximate matter (Metaphysics 1038b6, 1042b10).


We have collected the most common examples below:

Books with single author/editor
Books with multiple authors/editors
Books consulted online
Chapters in edited volumes
Films, Television Show, or DVD
Journal Articles
Music or Sound Recordings
Newspaper Articles
Visual Artworks
Website or Blog Entry
For Citations Not Listed


Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication, page–page)

(Hegel 1977, 23–24)

(Daum 2015, 32, 84)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. Year of publication. Book Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Hegel, G. W. F. 1977. Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit. Translated by A. V. Miller. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Daum, Meghan, ed. 2015. Selfish, Shallow, and Self-Absorbed: Sixteen Writers on the Decision Not to Have Kids. New York: Picador.




Text citation:

(LastName1, LastName2, and LastName3 year of publication, page–page)

(Jahoda, Lazarsfeld, and Zeisel 1975, 48–53)


Reference list entry:

LastName1, FirstName1, FirstName2 LastName2, and FirstName3 LastName3, eds. Year of publication. Book Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Jahoda, Marie, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and Hans Zeisel, eds. 1975. Die Arbeitslosen von Marienthal. Ein soziographischer Versuch. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.




Books consulted online are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI (or URL) at the end of the citation.

Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication, page–page)

(Thrall 1987)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. Year of publication. Book Title. Place of publication: Publisher. URL or DOI.

Thrall, Grant Ian. 1987. Land Use and Urban Form. New York, NY: Methuen.



Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication, page–page)

(Weiner, n.d.)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. Year of publication. “Cartoon Title.” Name of Publication. Date of Access.

Weiner, Zach. n.d. “Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal.” Accessed November 18, 2011.




Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication, Page–page)

(Sedley 2008, 308)


Reference list entry:

LastName, First Name. Year of publication. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by FirstName LastName, page–page. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Sedley, David. 2008. “Atomism’s Eleatic Roots.” In The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy, edited by Patricia Curd and Daniel W. Graham, 308–11. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.




Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication, page–page)

(Choi 2008)


Reference list entry:

LastName, First Name. Year of publication. “Thesis Title.” Source type identifier, Publisher.

Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.




Electronic books are cited exactly as their print counterparts. Citations pertaining to quoted passages must include page numbers.  If your e-book does not include stable page numbers, consult the printed version of the book.




When citing work by a particular person or group in a film, begin with that information. If citing a particular scene or feature such as a DVD interview or commentary, include the appropriate information (e.g., name of scene or names of those being interviewed). Cite the date of the original release unless citing information included in a specific release. For example, when citing ancillary information like DVD extras, cite the year the DVD was released rather than the theatrical release date.


When citing TV programs, cite the date of the original airing. When citing a DVD copy of a TV program, follow the citation for a DVD. When citing a TV program streamed online, cite it as an online video (see instructions below for citing YouTube/online videos), but include the original date of broadcast.


Text Citation:

(LastName YearOfRelease)

(Bullock 2014)

(“Crop Duster Attack” 2000)

(Friends 2000)


Reference list entries:

LastName, FirstName. YearOfRelease. Directed by FirstName LastName. Location of studio/distributor: Studio/Distributor.

Bullock, Sandra. 2014. Gravity. Directed by Alfonso Cuarón. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros.

“Crop Duster Attack.” 2000. North by Northwest. DVD. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.

Friends. 2000. Episode no. 153. Directed by David Schwimmer and written by Scott Silveri. Burbank, CA: NBC, first broadcast November 16, 2000.




Cite the image following the style for the source where the image was found (such as a book, journal, website, etc). If there is a photographer or illustrator, use his or her name in place of the author. If there is a caption, use the caption in place of the title of an article. Add a page number where the image is found. If a numbered figure is given, add it after the page number. If referencing an image found using Google images, cite the original source, not Google.


Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication, page–page)

(Estrin 2008, 5)

(Gruen 2010)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. Year of publication. “Image Title.” Location. Accessed month date, year. URL.

Estrin, James. 2008. “A Worshiper at St. Patrick’s Cathedral on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan.” New York Times. Accessed November 27, 2011.

Gruen, Bob. 2010. “Madison Square Garden, July 1972.” In Life, by Keith Richards with James Fox. New York: Little, Brown and Company. Color plate 12.




Published Interview from Publication:

Text citation:

(LastNameInterviewee YearOfPublication)

(Jolie 2009)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. Year of publication. Interview with FirstName LastName. Publication Title. Date of publication.

Jolie, Angelina. 2009. Interview with John Smith. Newsweek. February 3, 2009.


Published Interview from Radio/TV Program:

Text citation:

(LastName YearOfBroadcast)

(Jolie 2009)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. Year of broadcast. Interview with FirstName LastName. Program Title, Network, call letters. Date interviewed.

Jolie, Angelie. 2009. Interview with Steve Kroft. 60 Minutes, CBS, WCBS. February 3, 2009.


Unpublished Interview:

Text citation:

(LastName YearOfInterview)

(Smith 2009)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. Year interviewed. Interview by FirstName LastName. Interview type. Location, date of interview.

Smith, John. 2009. Interview by Bob Anderson. Tape recording. New York City, March 5, 2009.




Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication, page–page)

(LastName1, LastName2, and LastName3 YearOfPublication)

(Wong 2012, 87–88)

(Lampel, Lant, and Shamsie 2000)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. Year of publication. “Article Title.” Journal Title VolumeNumber, no. IssueNumber: page–page.

Wong, Mandy-Suzanne. 2012. “Hegel’s Being-Fluid in Corregidora, Blues, and (Post-)Black Aesthetics.” Evental Aesthetics 1, no. 1: 85–120.

Lampel, Joseph, Theresa Lant, and Jamal Shamsie. 2000. “Balancing Act: Learning from Organizing Practices in Cultural Industries.” Organization Science 11, no. 3: 263–69.




Use ‘headline’ capitalization even if the original article does not. Page numbers should be included if feasible.


Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication)

(Smith 2009)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. YearOfPublication. Magazine Title, DateOfPublication. URL.

Smith, John. 2009. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” Time, January 21, 2009.




If citing a work of classical music, it is sufficient to use the Opus number or, where this is inapplicable, the standard definite referent (e.g., Köchel catalogue number in the case of Mozart); no reference list entry is required.

If citing a recording, include the conductor or performer if you are specifically citing their contributions. Include a date of the recording, the copyright date/published date, or both. If you can’t find a date, consult a catalog. When citing music streamed from a website, also include information about the website. If referencing a significant number of musical or sound art items, cite in a separate discography.


Text citation:

(Composer LastName YearOfRecording)

(Mozart [1787] 1973)

(New York Trumpet Ensemble 1981)


Reference list entry:

Composer LastName, FirstName. YearOfRecording. Title of Recording. Performer FirstName LastName. Record Label [followed by] CD identifying number, format, year.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. (1787) 1973. Don Giovanni, K. 527. Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Conducted by Sir Colin Davis. With soloists Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa. Recorded May 1973. Philips 422 541-2, 3 CDs, 1991.

New York Trumpet Ensemble. 1981. Art of the Trumpet. With Edward Carroll (trumpet) and Edward Brewer (organ). Recorded at the Madeira Festival, June 1–2, 1981. Vox/Turnabout, PVT 7183, CD, 1982.




Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication)

(Smith 2009)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. YearOfPublication. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, date of publication. URL.

Smith, John. 2009. “Steelers Win Super Bowl XLIII.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2009.


If the author of a newspaper article is not given, the title of the newspaper replaces the author name:

(New York Times 2002)

New York Times. 2002. “In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor.” July 30, 2002.




There are multiple ways in which a podcast may be cited depending upon how you access it and the information it includes. If it is an interview, cite it as an interview but include the medium, date of publication (if available), and URL. If no date can be determined, cite the date accessed. Also cite the original date of performance if the podcast includes an audio or visual performance.


Text citation:

(LastName YearOfRelease)

(Steinke 2007)

(Glass 2010)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. YearOfRelease. “Podcast Title.” Publisher. Podcast audio. DateOfPublication. URL.

Steinke, Darcey. 2007. Interview by Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner. New York Times Book Review. Podcast audio. April 22, 2007.

Glass, Ira. 2010. “419: Petty Tyrant.” In This American Life. Podcast audio. November 12, 2010.




YouTube videos:


Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication)

(Cato Institute 2009)


Reference list entry:

LastName, FirstName. YearOfPublication. “Video Title.” YouTube video, duration of video. Month date, YearOfPublication. URL.

Cato Institute. 2009. “John Samples on Free Political Speech in 2009.” YouTube video, 5:59. November 13, 2009.


Video with a principal subject from an online source other than YouTube:


Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication)

(Harwood 2008)


Reference list entry:

Lastname, Firstname. YearOfPublication. “Video Title.” Website Title, duration of video. Month date, YearOfPublication. URL.

Harwood, John. 2008. “The Pros and Cons of Biden.” New York Times video, 2:00. August 23, 2008.




If you have viewed this work in person, cite the year of creation, medium, and dimensions of the art along with the location of the piece and the owner or collection where it is housed. Use only metric dimensions where both metric and Imperial measurements are available. If you find an image of the work of art in a book, journal, website, etc., use the appropriate corresponding citation formats.


Text citation:

(Al-Gazzar 1953)

(Buonarroti 1513–15)

(Dior 1953)

(Delaroche 1829)


Reference List entries:

LastName, FirstName. YearOfCreation. Artwork Name. Material, dimensions (height × width × depth cm). Location [City, Museum]. In PublicationName, by AuthorFirstName AuthorLastName: Location in publication.

Al-Gazzar, Abdel Hadi. 1953. Un Djinn Amoureux. Gouache and India ink on paper, 53 × 28 cm. Alexandria, Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts. In “Exceeding Realism: Utopian Modern Art on the Nile and Abdel Hadi Al-Gazzar’s Surrealistic Drawings.” Shalem, Avinoam. 2010. South Atlantic Quarterly 109, no. 3: 585. Figure 1.

Michelangelo [Buonarroti]. 1513–15. The Slave. Marble, 2.09 m. Paris, the Louvre.

Dior, Christian. 1953. May. Silk, length at CB ((a) to waist): 14.6 cm length at CB (b): 115.6 cm). New York, NY, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Delaroche, Paul. 1829. “Portrait of a Woman.” Pastel drawing, 10 × 12 in. Chapel Hill, NC, Ackland Art Museum. In European Drawings from the Collection of the Ackland Art Museum,

Carol C. Gillham and Carolyn H. Wood. Chapel Hill: The Museum, University of North Carolina, 2001.




Text citation:

(LastName YearOfPublication)

(Doctorow 2011)

(Limer 2014)


Reference list entry:

Lastname, Firstname. YearOfPublication. “Article/Blog Title.” Website/blog title. Month date, year of publication. Accessed month date, year of access. URL.

Doctorow, Cory. 2011. “How the Tax Code Works for Billionaires.” Boing Boing (blog). November 28, 2011.

Limer, Eric. 2013. “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan Is Finally Here.” Gizmodo. October 1, 2013. Accessed February 18, 2014.



Consult the latest edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.
With questions about any aspect of the submission process, contact the Editors.


The Chicago Manual of Style and EA’s style guide are evolving documents.  The information given here is subject to change.