Style Requirements

by Rich Andrew, Assistant Editor (November 2015)

The following is required of all writing submitted to EA.  Submissions that do not meet these requirements will not be considered for publication or sent for peer review.

Mechanics

  • All submissions must be in English.  Authors should use American spelling and grammar.  Our arbiters are The Chicago Manual of Style and Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. If more than one spelling is given or more than one form of the plural, Chicago normally opts for the first form listed, thus aiding consistency.
  • All text should be double-spaced.
  • The standard indent is one-half inch or five spaces.  Apply an indent to each new paragraph, hanging indents in references, and block quotes.
  • Leave a margin of one inch on all four edges of the page.
  • Use a legible typeface no smaller than 12pts.
  • The author’s name should not appear anywhere in the submission document.
  • Submit in MS Word (.doc or .docx), not PDF.

Punctuation

  • Quotation marks
    • Use double quotation marks except for quotations within quotations, which should use single marks.
    • All punctuation should go inside quotation marks except colons and semicolons.
  • Dashes
    • When using a dash to set off nested clauses or parenthetical statements, employ a single space on each side.  Only when the en dash is used to indicate a closed range of values between dates, times, or numbers should it not be surrounded by spaces.
  • Ellipses
    • Do not bracket ellipses inside quotations.  When using ellipses in the middle of a sentence, a space should appear between the first and last ellipsis marks and the surrounding letters.  If words are omitted at the end of a sentence, it is not necessary to indicate the omission with ellipses. Similarly, when words at the beginning of a quoted sentence are omitted, do not use ellipses when that fragment can fit into the flow of your text.
  • Brackets
    • Use square brackets to indicate words added to quotations.  In addition, when a quotation contains a capital letter that you must rewrite as a lowercase letter (or vice versa), surround the rewritten letter with square brackets.
  • Italics
    • Please use Italics, not underlines, for emphasis.  If a quoted passage contains Italics, the endnote in which the passage is cited should specify “Emphasis added” if you have added the Italics or “Emphasis original” if the Italics appear in the original, quoted document.
  • Period Spacing
    • Because The Chicago Manual of Style has endorsed both single spacing and double spacing after the concluding punctuation of a sentence, it comes down to an issue of aesthetics.  Due to the modern complexity of references, quotations, and footnotes, EA prescribes the use of two spaces after periods and colons and one space after semicolons.
    • The only exception is in a bibliographic entry where you should use one space after periods and colons.

Sources

Endnotes

  • Citations should appear at the end of the article under the heading “Notes.”
  • References are not to be cited in the body of the text but rather in an endnote.  Please do not use parenthetical citations.
  • If a single paragraph contains several references from the same author, simply use one number after the last quotation, paraphrase, or summary to indicate the source for all of the material used in that paragraph.
  • Successive citations from the same source must use Ibid – eg., x. Ibid., Page-Page.
  • Intervening entries (citations of sources that you have previously cited but with citations of other sources intervening) require a reference to the original citation in this form: Author’s Last Name, Short Title, Page-Page.  For example: Hegel, Phenomenology, 213.

Reference List

  • Titles and publication information appear at the end of the submission under the heading “References” and should be listed alphabetically by author and chronologically for each author.
  • The list of references should be limited to and inclusive of all those publications actually cited in the text.

Please consult the list below or previous issues of the journal for examples of EA’s citation style (Chicago). 

References not presented in the required style will be returned to the author for revision.

GrayLine4

BOOK

ENDNOTE:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, Book Title (City: Publisher, Year of Publication), Page–Page.
  2. G. W. F. Hegel, Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit, trans. A. V. Miller (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977), 23-44.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY:

Lastname, Firstname M. Book Title. City: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Hegel, G. W. F. Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit. Trans. A. V. Miller. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.

BOOKS CONSULTED ONLINE

Books consulted online are also cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI (or URL) at the end of the citation.

ENDNOTE:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, Book Title (City: Publisher, Year of Publication), URL.
  2. Grant Ian Thrall, Land Use and Urban Form (New York: Methuen, 1987), http://www.rri.wvu.edu/WebBook/Thrallbook/Land%20Use%20and%20Urban%20Form.pdf.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY:

Lastname, Firstname M. Book Title. City: Publisher, Year of Publication. URL.

Thrall, Grant Ian. Land Use and Urban Form. New York: Methuen, 1987. http://www.rri.wvu.edu/WebBook/Thrallbook/Land%20Use%20and%20Urban%20Form.pdf.

CARTOON

ENDNOTES:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, “Cartoon Title,” Name of Publication, Month Date, Year of Publication, Page-Page.
  2. Roz Chast, “Scenes from a Vacation,” New Yorker, October 31, 2011, 66-67.
  3. Zach Weiner, “Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal,” Smbc-comics.com, Accessed November 18, 2011, http://www.smbc-comics.com/?id=2434.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES:

Lastname, Firstname M. “Cartoon Title.” Name of Publication. Month Date, Year of Publication, Page-Page.

Chast, Roz. “Scenes from a Vacation.” New Yorker. October 31, 2011, 66-67.

Weiner, Zach. “Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal.” Smbc-comics.com. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.smbc-comics.com/?id=2434.

CHAPTER IN EDITED VOLUME

ENDNOTE:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, “Chapter/Section Title,” in Book Title, ed. Firstname Lastname (City: Publisher, Year of Publication), Page–Page.
  2. David Sedley, “Atomism’s Eleatic Roots,” in The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy, ed. Patricia Curd and Daniel W. Graham (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 305–332.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY:

Lastname, Firstname M. “Chapter/Section Title.” In Book Title, edited by Firstname Lastname, Page–Page. City: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Sedley, David. “Atomism’s Eleatic Roots.” In The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy, edited by Patricia Curd and Daniel W. Graham, 305–332. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

DISSERTATION

ENDNOTE:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, “Title” (Source Type Identifier, Publisher, Year of Publication).
  2. Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008).

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY:

Lastname, Firstname M. “Title.” Source Type Identifier, Publisher, Year of Publication.

Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008.

e-BOOK

Electronic books are cited exactly as their print counterparts. Endnote citations pertaining to quoted passages must include page numbers.  If your e-book does not include stable page numbers, consult the printed version of the book.

ENDNOTE:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, Book Title (City: Publisher, Year of Publication).
  2. Rebecca Lemon, ed., et al., The Blackwell Companion to the Bible in English Literature (West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY:

Lastname, Firstname M. Book Title. City: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Lemon, Rebecca, Emma Mason, Johnathan Roberts, and Christopher Rowland, ed. The Blackwell Companion to the Bible in English Literature. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

FILM, TELEVISION SHOW, OR DVD

When citing work by a particular person or group in a film, begin with that information. If citing a particular scene or feature such as a DVD interview or commentary, include the appropriate information, (e.g., name of scene or names of those being interviewed). Cite the date of the original release unless citing information included in a specific release. For example, cite the year the DVD was released instead of the theatrical release date when citing ancillary information like DVD extras.

When citing TV programs, cite the date of the original airing. When citing a DVD copy of a TV program, follow the citation for a DVD. When citing a TV program streamed online, cite it as an online video (see instructions below for citing YouTube/Online Videos), but include the original date of broadcast.

ENDNOTES:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, Film Title, Medium, directed by Firstname Lastname (Distributor City: Distributor, Year of Release).
  2. Sandra Bullock, Gravity, directed by Alfonso Cuarón (Burbank, CA: Warner Bros., 2014).
  3. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest, DVD, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000).
  4. Friends, Episode no. 153, directed by David Schwimmer and written by Scott Silveri (Burbank, CA: NBC, first broadcast November 16, 2000).

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES:

Lastname, Firstname M. Film Title. Medium. Directed by Firstname Lastname. Distributor City: Distributor, Year of Release.

Bullock, Sandra. Gravity. Directed by Alfonso Cuarón. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros., 2014.

“Crop Duster Attack.” North by Northwest. DVD. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000.

Friends. Episode no. 153. Directed by David Schwimmer and written by Scott Silveri. Burbank, CA: NBC, first broadcast November 16, 2000.

IMAGES

Cite the image following the style for the source where the image was found (such as a book, journal, website, etc). If there is a photographer or illustrator, use his or her name in place of the author. If there is a caption, use the caption in place of the title of an article. Add a page number where the image is found. If a numbered figure is given, add it after the page number. If referencing an image found using Google images, cite the original source, not Google.

ENDNOTES:

  1. James Estrin, “A Worshiper at St. Patrick’s Cathedral on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan,” New York Times, Accessed November 27, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/28/nyregion/for-catholics-the-word-was-a-bit- different-amen.html?ref=us.
  2. Bob Gruen, “Madison Square Garden, July 1972,” in Life, by Keith Richards with James Fox (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2010), color plate 12.
  3. Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, “An Arrowhead, Made from a Copper Nugget, Found at a Melting Alaskan Glacier,” Miller-McCune 3, no. 6 (2010): 23, figure 4.
  4. David Talbot, “Saving Holland,” Technology Review 110, no. 4 (2007): 52, figure 3.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES:

Estrin, James. “A Worshiper at St. Patrick’s Cathedral on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan.” New York Times. Accessed November 27, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/28/nyregion/for-catholics-the-word- was-a-bit-different-amen.html?ref=us.

Gruen, Bob. “Madison Square Garden, July 1972.” In Life, by Keith Richards with James Fox, color plate 12. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2010.

Maxwell Museum of Anthropology. “An Arrowhead, Made from a Copper Nugget, Found at a Melting Alaskan Glacier.” Miller-McCune 3, no. 6 (2010). 23. Figure 4.

Talbot, David. “Saving Holland.” Technology Review 110, no. 4 (2007). 52. Figure 3.

 INTERVIEW

ENDNOTES:

Published Interview From Publication:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, interview with Firstname Lastname. Publication Title, Date of Publication.
  2. Angelina Jolie, interview with John Smith. Newsweek, February 3, 2009.

Published Interview From Radio/TV Program:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, interview with Firstname Lastname. Program Title, Network, Call Letters, Date Interviewed.
  2. Angelina Jolie, interview with Steve Kroft. 60 Minutes, CBS, WCBS, February 3, 2009.

Unpublished Interview:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, interview by Firstname Lastname. Interview Type, Location, Date Interviewed.
  2. John Smith, interview by Bob Anderson. Tape recording, New York City, March 5, 2009.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES:

Published Interview From Publication:

Lastname, Firstname M. Interview with Firstname Lastname. Publication Title. Date of Publication.

Jolie, Angelina. Interview with John Smith. Newsweek. February 3, 2009.

Published Interview From Radio/TV Program:

Lastname, Firstname M. Interview with Firstname Lastname. Program Title. Network, Call Letters, Date Interviewed.

Jolie, Angelina. Interview with Steve Kroft. 60 Minutes. CBS, WCBS, February 3, 2009.

Unpublished Interview:

Lastname, Firstname M. Interview by Firstname Lastname. Interview Type. Location, Date Interviewed.

Smith, John. Interview by Bob Anderson. Tape recording. New York City, March 5, 2009.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

ENDNOTE:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year of Publication): Page–Page.
  2. Mandy-Suzanne Wong, “Hegel’s Being-Fluid in Corregidora, Blues, and (Post–)Black Aesthetics,” Evental Aesthetics 1, no. 1 (2012): 85-120.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY:

Lastname, Firstname M. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year of Publication). Page–Page.

Wong, Mandy-Suzanne. “Hegel’s Being-Fluid in Corregidora, Blues, and (Post–)Black Aesthetics.” Evental Aesthetics 1, no. 1 (2012). 85-120.

MAGAZINE

ENDNOTE:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, “Article Title,” Magazine Name, Date of Publication.
  2. John Smith, “Obama inaugurated as President,” Time, January 21, 2009.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY:

Lastname, Firstname M. “Article Title.” Magazine Name, Date of Publication.

Smith, John. “Obama inaugurated as President.” Time, January 21, 2009.

MUSIC OR SOUND ART RECORDING

Include the conductor or performer if you are specifically citing their contributions. Include a date of the recording, the copyright date/published date, or both. If you can’t find a date, consult a catalog. When citing music streamed from a website, also include information about the website. If referencing a significant number of musical or sound art items, cite in a separate discography.

ENDNOTES:

  1. Composer Firstname Lastname, Title of Recording, Performer Firstname Lastname, Record Label (followed by) CD Identifying Number, Format, Year.
  2. Ludwig van Beethoven, Piano Sonata no. 29, Rudolph Serkin, ProArte Digital CDD 270, CD, 1992.
  3. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Don Giovanni, Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, Sir Colin Davis, with Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al., recorded May 1973, Philips 422 541-2, 3 CDs, 1991.
  4. New York Trumpet Ensemble, Art of the Trumpet, with Edward Carroll (trumpet) and Edward Brewer (organ), recorded at the Madeira Festival, June 1–2, 1981, Vox/Turnabout, PVT 7183, CD, 1982.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES:

Composer Lastname, Firstname M. Title of Recording. Performer Firstname Lastname. Record Label (followed by) CD Identifying Number. Format. Year.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Piano Sonata no. 29. Rudolph Serkin. ProArte Digital CDD 270. CD. 1992.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Sir Colin Davis. With Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al. Recorded May 1973. Philips 422 541-2. 3 CDs. 1991.

New York Trumpet Ensemble. Art of the Trumpet. With Edward Carroll (trumpet) and Edward Brewer (organ). Recorded at the Madeira Festival, June 1–2, 1981. Vox/Turnabout, PVT 7183. CD. 1982.

NEWSPAPER

ENDNOTE:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, “Article Title,” Newspaper Name, Date of Publication.
  2. John Smith, “Steelers win Super Bowl XLIII,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2009.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY:

Lastname, Firstname M. “Article Title.” Newspaper Name, Date of Publication.

Smith, John. “Steelers win Super Bowl XLIII.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2009.

PODCAST

There are multiple ways in which a podcast may be cited depending upon how you access it and the information it includes. If it is an interview, cite it as an interview but include the medium, date of publication (if available), and URL. If no date can be determined, cite the date accessed. Also cite the original date of performance if the podcast includes an audio or visual performance.

ENDNOTES:

  1. Darcey Steinke, interview by Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner, New York Times Book Review, podcast audio, April 22, 2007, http://podcasts.nytimes.com/podcasts/2007/04/20/21bookupdate.mp3.
  2. “Patient Zero,” Radiolab, podcast audio, November 15, 2011, http://www.radiolab.org/2011/nov/14/.
  3. Ira Glass, “419: Petty Tyrant,” in This American Life, podcast audio, November 12, 2010, http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/419/petty-tyrant.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES:

Glass, Ira. “419: Petty Tyrant.” In This American Life. Podcast audio. November 12, 2010. http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/419/petty-tyrant.

“Patient Zero.” Radiolab. Podcast audio. November 15, 2011. http://www.radiolab.org/2011/nov/14/.

Steinke, Darcey. Interview by Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner. New York Times Book Review. Podcast audio. April 22, 2007. http://podcasts.nytimes.com/podcasts/2007/04/20/21bookupdate.mp3.

VIDEO

ENDNOTES:

YouTube video:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, “Video Title,” Website Title, Duration of video, Month Date, Year of Publication, URL.
  2. Cato Institute, “John Samples on Free Political Speech in 2009,” YouTube video, 5:59, November 13, 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRkUjMP8Byg.

Video with a principal subject from an online source other than YouTube:

  1. Firstname M. Lastname, “Video Title,” Website Title, Duration of video, Month Date, Year of Publication, URL.
  2. John Hardwood, “The Pros and Cons of Biden,” New York Times video, 2:00, August 23, 2008, http://video.on.nytimes.com/?fr_story=a425c9aca92f51bd19f2a621fd93b5e266507191.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES:

YouTube video:

Lastname, Firstname M. “Video Title.” Website Title, Duration of video. Month Date, Year of Publication. URL.

Cato Institute. “John Samples on Free Political Speech in 2009.” YouTube video, 5:59. November 13, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRkUjMP8Byg.

Video with a principal subject from an online source other than YouTube:

Lastname, Firstname M. “Video Title.” Website Title, Duration of video. Month Date, Year of Publication. URL.

Harwood, John. “The Pros and Cons of Biden.” New York Times video, 2:00. August 23, 2008. http://video.on.nytimes.com/?fr_story=a425c9aca92f51bd19f2a621fd93b5e266507191.

VISUAL ARTWORKS

If you have viewed this work in person, cite the year of creation, medium, and size of the art along with the location of the piece and the owner or collection where it is housed. If you find an image of the work of art in a book, journal, website, etc., use the appropriate corresponding citation formats.

ENDNOTES:

  1. Abdel Hadi Al-Gazzar, Un Djinn Amoureux, 1953, Gouache and india ink on paper, 53 by 28 cm, Alexandria, Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, in “Exceeding Realism: Utopian Modern Art on the Nile and Abdel Hadi Al-Gazzar’s Surrealistic Drawings,” South Atlantic Quarterly 109, no. 3 (2010): 585, Figure 1.
  2. Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Slave, 1513-15, marble, 2.09 m., Paris, The Louvre.
  3. Christian Dior, May, 1953, Silk, Length at CB ((a) to waist): 5 3/4 in. (14.6 cm) Length at CB (b): 45 1/2 in. (115.6 cm), New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  4. Paul Delaroche, “Portrait of a Woman,” 1829, Pastel drawing, 10 by 12 in., Chapel Hill, NC, Ackland Art Museum, in European Drawings from the Collection of the Ackland Art Museum, by Carol C. Gillham and Carolyn H. Wood (Chapel Hill: The Museum, University of North Carolina, 2001), 93.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES:

Al-Gazzar, Abdel Hadi. Un Djinn Amoureux, 1953. Gouache and india ink on paper, 53 by 28 cm. Alexandria, Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts. In “Exceeding Realism: Utopian Modern Art on the Nile and Abdel Hadi Al-Gazzar’s Surrealistic Drawings.” South Atlantic Quarterly 109, no. 3 (2010). 585. Figure 1.

Buonarroti, Michelangelo. The Slave, 1513-15. Marble, 2.09 m. Paris, The Louvre.

Dior, Christian. May, 1953. Silk, Length at CB ((a) to waist): 5 3/4 in. (14.6 cm) Length at CB (b): 45 1/2 in. (115.6 cm). New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Delaroche, Paul. “Portrait of a Woman,” 1829. Pastel drawing, 10 by 12 in. Chapel Hill, NC, Ackland Art Museum. In European Drawings from the Collection of the Ackland Art Museum, by Carol C. Gillham and Carolyn H. Wood. Chapel Hill: The Museum, University of North Carolina, 2001.

WEBSITE OR BLOG ENTRY

ENDNOTES:

  1. “Article/Blog Title,” Website/Blog Title, Accessed Month Date, Year of Access, URL.
  2. “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here,” Accessed February 18, 2014, http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597.
  3. Cory Doctorow, “How the Tax Code Works for Billionaires,” Boing Boing (blog), November 28, 2011, http://boingboing.net/2011/11/28/how-the-tax-code-works-for-bil.html.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES:

Lastname, Firstname M. “Article/Blog Title.” Website/Blog Title. Month Date, Year of Publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of Access. URL.

Doctorow, Cory. “How the Tax Code Works for Billionaires.” Boing Boing (blog). November 28, 2011. http://boingboing.net/2011/11/28/how-the-tax-code-works-for-bil.html.

Limer, Eric. “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Gizmodo. October 1, 2013. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597.

 FOR CITATIONS NOT LISTED

Consult the latest edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.
With questions about any aspect of the submission process, contact the Editors.

 

The Chicago Manual of Style and EA’s style guide are evolving documents.  The information given here is subject to change.